Good Luck on Exams!
Final exams are here and the Law Library can help!
Looking for a place to study? Reserve a study room through TWEN or study in the carrels in the basement (use your ID to swipe in after 5 pm), the second floor Law Library Reading Room, the fourth floor Quiet Reading Room, or the open seating on the fifth floor.
Study Breaks & Snacks
When you’re ready for a short break or need to decompress, the Law Library offers puzzles and coloring pages and colored pencils in room 110, the Law Library Services Suite (use your ID to swipe in before 8am and after 6 pm).
You can find sample and practice exams in many of the study aids. We also have a limited number of sample and practice exams from faculty available on the Law School Sample / Practice Exams TWEN site.
Accessing Law Library Study Aids
LexisNexis Digital Library (OverDrive)
If accessing study aids from the LexisNexis Digital Library, you will need to login using your UC credentials.
To create an account, click the Create an Account link at the top right corner of the Study Aids Subscription page. Use your UC email as the email address. Once you have filled in the required information to set up an account, you will need to verify your email address (they will send you a confirmation email that you will need answer to verify the email address — be sure and check your junk mail). Once you have created an account and logged in, you can use the links below to access individual study aids or you can access all study aids through https://subscription.westacademic.com.
Aspen Learning Library
If accessing study aids from the Aspen Learning Library subscription, you will need to login using your UC credentials.
1L Subjects for the 2nd Week of Spring 2023 Exams
Civil Procedure II
Selected Study Aids for Help Understanding Civil Procedure
CALI offers many interactive exercises for Civil Procedure students. You will need to set up a password to use CALI online. To set up a username and password, you will be asked to enter UC Law’s authorization code. UC Law students can get this code from any reference librarian.
Available via the Aspen Learning Library, this book provides introductions to the principles of civil procedure, together with examples that illustrate how these principles apply in typical cases. Clear introductions and explanations cover all aspects of the first-year course including the areas of res judicata, collateral estoppel, personal and subject matter jurisdiction, and three chapters on various aspects of the Erie doctrine. A series of problems at the end of each section or chapter assist you in testing your understanding. Answers are provided for these problems.
Available via the LexisNexis Digital Library study aid subscription, this book is premised on the assumption that the key to understanding the principles of civil procedure is to know why: why the principles were created and why they are invoked. The treatise is written to answer these questions as it lays out the basic principles of civil procedure. Although they discuss important civil procedure cases in the text, thus supporting the most widely used civil procedure casebooks using these same cases, they also provide useful references to secondary sources and illustrative cases for the reader who wants to explore further.
Selected Study Aids for Civil Procedure Exam Review and Preparation
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this book uses a checklist format to lead students through the questions they need to ask and answer to fully analyze the legal questions they are trying to resolve. It assembles the different issues, presenting a clear guide to procedural analysis that students can draw upon when writing their exams. Other study aids provide sample problems, but this book offers a systematic approach to problem solving.
Available via the Aspen Learning Library, this book provides a short review of basic topics in Civil Procedure, organized around the theme of multiple-choice questions. In each chapter, the individual sections explain fundamental principles of a topic—such as stream-of-commerce jurisdiction, joinder under Rule 14, or the requirements for res judicata—and illustrate them with one or two multiple-choice questions. After each question, the correct answer is revealed and explained and the author discusses why the wrong answers are wrong.
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this fourth edition (expanded with new questions, new answers, and new explanations) encompasses material reflecting all Civil Procedure Rule amendments through December 2021, along with applicable new case law through February 2022. This multiple choice practice book is designed for: (a) bar exam takers, who are preparing to take the MBE multiple choice bar exam, and (b) 1L law students, who are preparing to take their course examinations. This practice book offers practical, easy-to-follow advice on multiple choice exam-taking strategies, clear suggestions on effective multiple choice practicing techniques, and a robust set of Civil Procedure multiple choice practice questions with answers and explanations (designed to simulate MBE-style questions). Tables help users decode the tested-topic for each practice question.
Selected Study Aids for Help Understanding Property
CALI currently offers many interactive exercises for Property. You will need to set up a password to use CALI online. To set up a username and password, you will be asked to enter UC Law’s authorization code. UC Law students can get this code from any reference librarian.
Selected Study Aids for Property Law Exam Review and Preparation
Available on the West Academic study aid subscription, this study aid uses a checklist format to lead students through the questions they need to ask and answer to fully analyze the legal questions they are trying to resolve. Each chapter begins with a review and explanation of the important rules, concepts and principles that govern a particular area of property law. The review material is then synthesized into a checklist. Each chapter concludes with practice problems and solutions. The fourth edition includes: Two full-length, four-hour practice essay exams (with model answers); A new Master Checklist for issue-spotting essay questions; Updated discussion and Chapter Checklists for new developments in the law; New exam tips for regulatory takings and real covenants questions; Additional discussion of bailments, co-ownership, servitudes, and real estate transactions.
Available on the West Academic study aid subscription, this title provides a basic introduction to estates and future interests law. Designed to offer solid knowledge of the area’s central concepts, it guides readers through a series of increasingly complex conveyances. The workbook begins with an analysis of the fee simple estate and builds sequentially toward more complicated interests and conveyances. The information proceeds from the simple to more complex, later problems building on the successful command of earlier material. Each problem is followed not only by that problem’s answer but also by a complete analysis of how the answer was derived. The workbook also contains an extensive glossary, summary charts, and a set of review problems that test the reader’s developing mastery of the material.
Available on the Aspen Learning Library subscription, this study aid provides a concise review of property topics through the use of multiple-choice questions. After each question the author explains how the correct choice was chosen, So that students learn how to analyze exam questions while they review course material.This edition contains two new chapters on “Bailments” and “Eminent Domain”, and new text and questions on the scope and termination of easements and the scope and termination of covenants.
Available on the LexisNexis Digital Library subscription, this guide facilitates the understanding of complex materials from Property courses. Chronologically organized material familiarizes students with basic concepts and necessary technical vocabulary. The authors graphically explain complex concepts, and provide extensive problem and answer sets. Topics include basic possessory estates, remainders and executory interests in response to the statute of uses, modifications of the common law scheme, and interesting complexities and modern changes.
2L, 3L & LLM Subjects
Asylum & Refugee Law
Selected Study Aids for Help Understanding Asylum & Refugee Law
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this compact title offers a thorough overview of the history, constitutional basis, statutory structure, regulatory provisions, administrative procedure, and ethical principles related to immigration law and practice.
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, topics in this study aidinclude an introductory discussion of comparative versus international law and the relevance of both to U.S. Jurisprudence; a comprehensive overview of international migration multilateral and bilateral regimes; glimpses into the immigration law and practices of Mexico, Canada, the European Union, the United Kingdom, France, and Spain; and a final part that examines international norms on freedom of movement, the right to nationality, policing, living conditions, immigrant workers and anti-terrorism law.
Available via LexisNexis Digital Library study aid subscription, the third edition of Understanding Immigration Law lays out the basics of U.S. immigration law in an accessible way to newcomers to the field. It offers background about the intellectual, historical, and constitutional foundations of U.S. immigration law. The book also identifies the factors that have historically fueled migration to the United States, including the economic “pull” of jobs and family in the United States and the “push” of economic hardship, political instability, and other facts of life in the sending country. Each chapter has been updated to analyze the unprecedented number of immigration enforcement measures—and many simply unprecedented measures—taken by the Trump administration.
Selected Study Aids for Help Understanding Corporate Finance Law
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this study aid explains the basic economic elements and legal principles of business organization and finance. It distills in a straightforward and accessible way the essential elements of these often complex topics and explains the basic economic elements and legal principles of business organization and finance with concise, conceptual overviews. It contains a detailed introduction outlining the essential functions of corporate law. It contains an invaluable new section covering recent developments in financial markets, the financial crisis, the role of derivatives and financial complexity in the modern corporation to give students background on modern financial issues.
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this title covers the entire field of corporate finance, including changes stemming from the Dodd-Frank Act. In addition to discussing accounting and valuation concepts, it provides extensive coverage of the legal and financial underpinnings of debt securities, preferred and common stock, and derivative instruments (options, forward contracts, futures contracts and swap contracts). It also provides sample valuation problems, answers, and explanations.
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this Hornbook lays out the fundamentals of corporate finance from a legal and business perspective in a manageable, user-friendly manner. The author highlights how accounting, finance and corporate law intersect and operate synergistically. The book provides an in-depth analysis of how the law affects both equity securities (common stock and preferred stock) and debt securities (bonds, debentures and notes), as well as a company’s capital structure generally. New to the Second Edition is a substantial chapter focused on raising capital through the issuance of securities through both registered public offerings under the Securities Act of 1933 and transactions exempt from Securities Act registration. The SEC’s integration of multiple securities offerings is also covered.
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this Hornbook provides a comprehensive exploration of this important topic. Written in a casual style designed to engage the reader, the book clarifies and critiques critical doctrine. In addition to covering corporate laws governing mergers and acquisitions, the book explores securities, tax, and antitrust laws, as well as addressing the business, financial, and practical lawyering aspects of mergers and acquisitions.
Selected Study Aids for Corporate Finance Law Exam Review and Preparation
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this study aid contains an outline on securities regulation. Topics covered include the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), jurisdiction and interstate commerce, and the Securities Act of 1933 (including persons and property interests covered, registration statements, exemptions from registration requirements, and liabilities). It also discusses the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (including rule 10b-5, tender offers and repurchases of stock, regulation of proxy solicitations, liability for short-swing profits on insider transactions, and SEC enforcement actions), regulation of the securities markets, multinational transactions, and the state regulation of securities transactions.
Land Use Law and Development
Selected Study Aids for Help Understanding Land Use Law and Development
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this study aid reviews the common law principles that underpin modern land use regulations, including covenants and restrictions that work with government regulation to limit the use of private property. The Nutshell clearly explains the legal aspects of land planning and regulation, project review processes, and innovative and flexible regulatory devices. Subdivision and site plan regulation, local environment law, discrimination in zoning based on race and religion, regulatory takings, inverse condemnation, and community development practices are all explored. In addition, the book discusses the law of smart growth, and addresses current trends in land use law including the siting of renewable energy facilities, marijuana and drones. An appendix of internet-based resources is also provided.
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this Hornbook introduces the fundamentals of land use planning and control law. Subjects covered include the planning process, zoning, development permission, subdivision control law, and building and housing codes. Discusses constitutional limitations and the environmental aspects of land use controls. Explores aesthetic regulation, historic preservation, and agricultural land protection.
Available via LexisNexis Digital Library study aid subscription, this a text addressing zoning, land use, and environmental regulation in a national, jurisdiction-independent manner. It first sets out the constitutional framework for land use regulation in a discussion of the takings clause, followed by a discussion of the basic form of land use controls, Euclidian zoning, and then non-Euclidian regulations. Also discussed are administrative and legislative relief from land use controls, the bread and butter of a land use practice.
Selected Study Aids for Land Use Law and Development Exam Review and Preparation
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this Outline summarizes the basic black letter rules of Environmental Law in a way that allows students to appreciate how different parts of their course material fit together. The Outline covers approaches to environmental regulations, constitutional issues in Environmental Law, the National Environmental Policy Act, Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act and other toxic substances statutes. The Outline also discusses the complex intersection of law, sciences such as biology, geology, and engineering, and important economic, ethical, and social issues. It also includes a glossary of environmental terms and practice exam questions.
Available via LexisNexis Digital Library study aid subscription, this study guide uses multiple-choice and short-answer questions to test your students’ knowledge of environmental law doctrine. Each multiple-choice question is accompanied by a detailed answer that indicates which of four options is the best answer and explains why that option is better than the other three options. Each short-answer question (designed to be answered in no more than fifteen minutes) is followed by a thoughtful, yet brief, model answer.
Selected Study Aids for Help Understanding Sales
Selected Study Aids for Sales Exam Review and Preparation
Available via the Aspen Learning Library, Friedman’s Practice Series helps you develop the skills for spotting issues and preparing answers for your next exam. Real laws school exams test your knowledge of the key concepts and rules with a collection of essay and multiple-choice questions. Set up to mirror actual exams, the series features long essay questions as well as some that are relatively short and medium-length.
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, the topics discussed in the Sale and Lease of Goods outline are Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) Article 2, sales contract (including offer and acceptance, parol evidence rule, statute of frauds, assignment and delegation, and revision of contract terms). Also covered are types of sales, including cash sale transactions, auctions, “sale or return”, and “sale on approval” transactions, express and implied warranties, and privity.
Available via the Aspen Learning Library, this text includes an introduction to working with the uniform commercial code; discusses the the scope of article 2; formation; the parol evidence rule; interpretation and modification; the statute of frauds; warranties; disclaimer of warranties; third-party beneficiaries; the code scheme for performance; delivery and shipment; excuse of performance; assurances and reclamation; Seller’s remedies; Buyer’s remedies; limitation of remedies; assignment and delegation; the statute of limitations. Coverage of Article 2a looks at leases of goods; software transactions; and International sales.
White Collar Crime
Selected Study Aids for Help Understanding White Collar Crime
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this text covers conspiracy, fraud, corruption, RICO, false statements, perjury, tax, currency reporting, bankruptcy, environmental and computer crimes. Procedural issues are addressed in detail, including the grand jury process, agency investigations, parallel proceedings, self-incrimination (testimony and documents), searches, and privileges. In addition to statutes and caselaw, the book covers strategy and DOJ internal guidelines and also includes sentencing of both individuals and corporations in white collar cases.
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this text provides a broad overview of white collar crime, including procedural and evidentiary issues. It covers specific offenses such as mail and bank fraud, securities fraud, obstruction of justice, bribery, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), and computer crimes. It covers procedural topics such as those related to grand jury and administrative agency investigations, self-incrimination, and parallel proceedings. Also discussed are punishment and sanctions for white collar crimes.
Available via LexisNexis Digital Library study aid subscription, this text covers the complexities of mainstay white collar crimes — from wire fraud and insider trading to computer crime and money laundering — through straightforward analyses of statutory elements, supported by a discussion of the main U.S. Supreme Court and Circuit Court cases interpreting those statutes. In addition, the book explores the significant policy issues that arise in white collar and corporate crime investigations, prosecutions, pretrial diversion agreements, and sentences.
Study aids on Criminal Law may also be helpful here.
Criminal Procedure I
Selected Study Aids for Help Understanding Criminal Procedure I
Available via the Aspen Learning Library subscription, this study aid provides an overview of Criminal Procedure, together with examples that illustrate how these principles apply in typical cases. The text gives students a sense of the theoretical flow and logic of law enforcement by following police procedural order. It includes a special section on terrorism in the United States and the Fourth Amendment ramifications. A series of problems at the end of each section or chapter assist you in testing your understanding. Answers are provided for these problems.
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this text assists students in learning about Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendment issues associated with criminal investigations. The materials discuss and analyze the criminal procedure jurisprudence of the United States Supreme Court, with extensive use of primary source material that affects judges, prosecutors, defense counsel, and criminal defendants. Discussions relate to breakthrough decisions like Miranda v. Arizona, as well as cases adding a nuance to topics already well-developed in prior Court decisions. “The Court” is a phrase used hundreds of times as a shorthand reference to the work of the United States Supreme Court. Footnotes provide specific page citations in United States Reports for a quick reference to Westlaw. The coverage of this book extends to United States Supreme Court cases through the 2020–2021 Term.
Available via LexisNexis Digital Library study aid subscription, Understanding Criminal Procedure Volume One: Investigation is intended for use in introductory criminal procedure courses focusing primarily or exclusively on police investigative process and constitutional concerns. A chapter on the defendant’s right to counsel at trial and appeal and other non-police-practice issues is included in both volumes. The eighth edition of Investigation incorporates all of the major Supreme Court cases since the last edition was published, such as Carpenter v. United States, Mitchell v. Wisconsin, Collins v. Virginia, and Kansas v. Glover. It also includes an in-depth discussion of the mosaic theory of searches, and contains expanded coverage of issues surrounding border searches, the third-party doctrine, and the exigent circumstances exception to the warrant requirement.
Selected Study Aids for Criminal Procedure I Exam Review and Preparation
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this text covers incorporation and retroactivity, right to counsel, search and seizure, police interrogations and confessions, identification Procedures, the Exclusionary Rule, and entrapment. Checklists are provided for all topics generally covered in the basic criminal procedure course.
Available via the Aspen Learning Library subscription, this Glannon Guide reviews the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendment cases and principles typically covered in law school criminal procedure class. It mirrors the classroom experience by teaching through explanation, interspersed with hypotheticals to illustrate application. Both correct and incorrect answers are explained; you learn why a solution does or does not work.
Available via LexisNexis Digital Library study aid subscription, this book will assist readers’ learning and exam preparation in criminal procedure courses and for the bar exam. This volume covers arrest, search and seizure, interrogation, identification, suppression issues, and entrapment.
State & Local Tax
Selected Study Aids for Help Understanding States & Local Tax
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this edition continues the emphasis of prior editions on such topics as the relationship of local governments to state and federal governments; the needs of local governments for territory, for personnel, and for adequate financing; and the principal activities and possible liabilities of local government. There is increased attention to land use control, an area of growing activity on the part of institutions, ranging from the U.S. Supreme Court to local zoning boards. This includes material not found in some books in this field, on such important concepts as “smart growth,” “new urbanism,” and “regulatory takings.”
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this nutshell is a fully updated summary of state and federal laws that pertain to public finance and taxation. The nutshell places the technical legal rules it considers in the context of the broader public policy issues that those rules raise. It focuses on several past fiscal crises as a catalyst for, as well as a source of, doctrinal changes in these areas of the law.
Available via LexisNexis Digital Library study aid subscription, this treatise aims to provide a general understanding of the functionality of local governments. It identifies the underpinnings and the concepts that determine how local governments function in fulfilling their purpose of providing both needed and desired services to their residents. The book also makes numerous references to laws and other materials of particular states and regions, making it easy to provide illustrative examples and to supplement the text.
Selected Study Aids for Help Understanding Business Tax
Available via the Aspen Learning Library subscription, this study guide provides explanation of Subchapter C, addressing the tax consequences of corporate formations, distributions, liquidations, reorganizations, and divisions. It covers changes resulting from the 2017 legislation and subsequent reforms and how those changes can affect business structures.
CALI currently offers a number of interactive exercises for students studying Business Law. You will need to set up a password to use CALI online. To set up a username and password, you will be asked to enter UC Law’s authorization code. UC Law students can get this code from any reference librarian.
Available via LexisNexis Digital Library study aid subscription, this book is broken into parts on partnership taxation, C corporation taxation, and S corporation taxation. Each chapter contains a basic overview and a detailed analysis; this allows for an understanding of the big picture before diving into the details, and the basic overview alone may be sufficient for some topics that may be covered lightly in a business entity taxation course. For each type of business tax entity, the book covers its life cycle – formation, operations, and liquidation – along with reorganizations and divisions for corporations. The book is replete with descriptions and analyses of the relevant Internal Revenue Code and Treasury Regulations provisions, summaries of leading cases and IRS rulings, and plenty of examples that apply the law to hypothetical situations.
Selected Study Aids for Business Tax Exam Review and Preparation
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this comprehensive and clearly written text is designed to help students recognize and understand the basic principles and issues covered in law school courses in corporate taxation at both the J.D. and LL.M. levels. It explains all the fundamental concepts and transactions affecting C and S corporations and their shareholders, and includes numerous illustrative examples, self-test questions with answers, and sample exam questions. The Ninth Edition incorporates all relevant provisions of the 2017 legislation known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this study aid includes lectures and study questions on the deduction for qualified business income under section 199A, the new regulations on allocating partnership recourse debt, and the choice of entity for conducting business and investment activities. New sample exams at the basic, intermediate and advanced levels give you an even better shot to ace your partnership tax exam. The book is designed to help JD and LLM students from the first day of class. It begins with over 50 short lectures on topics in partnership tax ranging from basic to advanced, illustrated by over 280 study questions, each with a complete explanation of the right (and wrong) answers. Several of the lectures focus on the basic accounting concepts that are essential to understanding partnership tax, to give students with no prior accounting background the tools they need to succeed in this subject. The book includes twelve sample exams (a total of 120 more questions) that, like the lectures, increase in difficulty from basic to advanced, labeled so that students can pick the exams that are right for them and the course they are taking. Full answers to each of the exam questions are provided, with cross-references to the lectures and the study questions.
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this outline discusses taxation of partnerships, including current partnership income, contributions of property to partnership, sale of partnership interest, distributions, and liquidations, as well as the taxation of corporations, including formation, corporate distributions, sales of stock and assets, and reorganizations, S corporations. The book has been updated to include discussion of the special taxation of Qualified Business Income and other changes adopted as part of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.
Selected Study Aids for Help Understanding Copyright
Available via the Aspen Learning Library subscription, this study aid provides an overview of Copyright Law, together with examples that illustrate how these principles apply in typical cases. Discussions of issues include whether artists have copyright in their performances, first sale of digital works, copying of information from famous news photographs, copyright of works in virtual worlds, fair use of appropriation art, news clippings services, Google Books, course pack, secondary liability of BitTorrent and YouTube, and reasonable royalty damages. A series of problems at the end of each section or chapter assist you in testing your understanding. Answers are provided for these problems.
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this text provides an exploration of the doctrinal and policy issues in American copyright law. It covers every major topic in basic copyright courses: the history of copyright, ownership and duration, formalities, exclusive rights of the copyright holder, fair use, civil and criminal enforcement of copyright law, and federal preemption of state law. Beyond that, the authors address the major new issues that have emerged over the past two decades, including the rules of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act regarding circumvention of technological protections of copyrighted materials, and the principles of secondary liability, both in their basic form and as developed through application of the DMCA to internet service providers. Moreover, attention is given to the important points at which U.S. copyright law intersects with international intellectual property treaties.
CALI currently offers interactive exercises for intellectual property students. You will need to set up a password to use CALI online. To set up a username and password, you will be asked to enter UC Law’s authorization code. You can get this code from any reference librarian or at the Circulation Desk.
Available via LexisNexis Digital Library study aid subscription, this study aid has incorporated all the recent case law and legislative developments, focusing on the challenges of the digital age. In addition to including the latest case law developments, this edition incorporates the Music Modernization Act of 2018. The seventh edition covers all aspects of the MMA, a dazzling legislative overhaul of the musical copyright, which among its other provisions, creates a new blanket license for digital deliveries and provides protection to pre-1972 sound recordings.
Selected Study Aids for Copyright Exam Review and Preparation
Available via the West Academic study aid subscription, this study aid uses outline-like checklists to lead law students through the analytical steps necessary to analyze intellectual property issues. The book covers trademark, patent, copyright, and trade secret law. Each chapter begins with a brief review of the important rules and concepts that govern a particular area of intellectual property law. The review material is followed by a checklist that provides students with a clear roadmap for answering intellectual property questions. Each chapter concludes with practice problems and solutions that illustrate how students can use the checklist to analyze intellectual property issues.
Available via the Aspen Learning Library subscription, this CrunchTime covers intellectual property generally, trade secrets (status, ownership, and public policy); patents (novelty, non-obviousness); rights in undeveloped ideas; copyright (idea/expression, originality, infringement); trademark law (policies, registerd and common-law marks, origin, product feature trade dress; unfair competition; and federal and state law relationship.
Available via LexisNexis Digital Library study aid subscription, this study aid includes over fifty new multiple choice questions, as well as three new practice examinations. These additions reflect the latest developments in this ever-changing field, including the implications of U.S. Supreme Court decisions such as Petrella v. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Kirtsaeng v. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Golan v. Holder, and American Broadcasting Cos., Inc. v. Aereo, Inc. The questions and practice exams span the varied landscape of copyright, including: Requirements for copyright protection; Copyrightable subject matter; Ownership of copyright; Protection of exclusive rights; Copyright formalities; Length of copyright protection; Infringement; Fair use and other affirmative defenses; Remedies; and Enhanced protection for digital materials.